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This document provides an Information Model for TezGraph product.

While Tezos glossary was used as a foundation for definitions, this document clarifies Tezos terms further and adds new terms applicable to TezGraph.

Tezos entities

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Account (aka Contract) is an agreement between a blockchain participant and a blockchain that is uniquely identified through its address and may carry a balance.

Implicit Account is a type of Account associated with a person, an institution, or its representative. Implicit Account is identifiable by address format: tz[1, 2, 3]<public key hash>.

Originated Account (aka Smart Contracts, KT1<...>) is a type of Account associated with a program. A program is a Michelson script stored and executed on the blockchain to update the blockchain's context. Originated Account is identifiable by address format: KT1<public key hash>.

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Operation is an action that changes the state of the blockchain data.

Block is a collection of Operations. Operations are grouped into Blocks so that the chain progresses in batches.

Cycle is a set of consecutive blocks. Cycles are used as a unit of “time” in the blockchain.

Baking rights are an allowance to create and progress a number of new Blocks. Baking Rights are limited to Blocks assigned within a Cycle.

Endorsement rights are an allowance to validate a number of new Blocks. Endorsement rights are limited to the Blocks assigned within a Cycle.

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Delegate is a type of Implicit Account registered for the opportunity to get Baking Rights and/or Endorsement Rights assigned for the upcoming Cycle.

Delegate is registered by creating a transaction to itself.

Other Implicit Account can give their Baking and Endorsement rights to a Delegate through fund lending. In this case, the Delegate does not control the funds from that Implicit Account.

Delegate Registry is a collection of current Delegates.

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Baker is a Delegate with Baking rights. The amount of Baking rights is assigned based on the Delegate's seed_nonce, the total balance of tez (# of rolls), and timeliness/legitimacy of past operations. Baker can also submit proposals and vote.

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Endorser is a Delegate with Endorsement rights. The amount of Endorsement rights is assigned based on the Delegate's seed_nonce, the total balance of tez (# of rolls), and timeliness/legitimacy of past operations.

Voting Cycle is a time period during which voting on a proposal is accepted.

TezGraph Model


Implicit Accounts

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Implicit Account can be in one of two states: Active and Inactive. Once the Implicit Account is revealed, it becomes Active. Once its balance is drained, it becomes Inactive.

Implicit Account also can be registered as a Delegate, in which case it becomes an Active Delegate. It can be automatically unregistered and become an Inactive Delegate.

You can see both Active and Inactive Delegates referred to in Operations.

Originated Accounts

TezGraph uses the definition of Originated Account above.


Operations on Tezos blockchain can be grouped into Account Operations, Validation Operation, and Voting Operations.

Account Operations include Reveal, Activation, Transaction, Delegation, Origination.

Validation Operations include Endorsement, Double Baking Evidence, and Double Endorsement Evidence.

Voting Operations include Ballot, Proposal.

IMPORTANT NOTE: In the current TezGraph release, all operations are available for subscription, but only Reveal, Transaction, Delegation, Origination, and Endorsement are available for querying.

Account Operations

Account Operation is an Operation targeting to change the state of a particular Account.

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Reveal is an Operation that publicly reveals the address of the Implicit Account. It usually happens before any other Operation can be performed on the Implicit Account.

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Activation is an Operation that reactivates an Account after deactivation. An account gets deactivated when it is drained.

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Transaction is an Operation to transfer tokens from one Implicit Account to another or execute an Originated Account (smart contract).

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Delegation is an Operation in which an Implicit Account's balance is lent to a Delegate. This increases the Delegate’s balance and, consequently, its Baking and Endorsement rights.

Note, Delegation is an Operation of lending to an Implicit Account. This Implicit Account does not become a Delegate due to Delegation Operation, but it has to be a Delegate (see definition above) in the first place.

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Origination is an Operation to register a Smart Contract (aka Originated Account). The smart contract must be originated before execution (see Transaction).

Validation Operations

Validation Operation is an Operation targeting validation of creation and endorsement of Blocks.

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Endorsement/Endorsement with Slot is an Operation confirming the validity and legitimacy of the Block being created and propagated on the blockchain. A Delegate that emits an Endorsement is deemed the Endorser ****of the Block.

Since Endorsement rights are assigned randomly, a Baker might be allowed to endorse a given Block more than once.

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Pre-endoresement is an Operation happening before final Endorsement operation. This operation was introduced to support Tenderbake as part of Ithaca protocol update.

Double Baking Evidence is an Operation that proves an intention to create multiple identical Blocks by a Baker.

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Double Endorsement Evidence is an Operation that proves multiple Endorsements for a Block.

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Seed Nonce Revelation is an Operation executed for a Delegate to reveal the cryptographic nonce they committed in their Blocks from previous Cycles. This information is used to calculate Baking and Endorsement rights for the next Cycle.

Voting Operations

Voting Operation is an Operation that executes a Delegate's voting power.

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Proposal is a Voting Operation executed by a Delegate to submit and/or upvote proposals to amend the Tezos protocol.

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Ballot is a Voting Operation submitted by a Delegate to vote for a proposal in a given Voting Cycle.